dsbeckham / apod-scraper

Scraper for the "Astronomy Picture of the Day" website

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url date title credit explanation picture_thumbnail_url picture_url video_url
3D Mercury Transit
Image Credit & <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/lib/about_apod.html#srapply">Copyright</a>: <a href="http://www.astromeeting.de/">Stefan Seip</a> (<a href="http://www.twanight.org/">TWAN</a>)
On May 9, innermost planet <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/ iris-releases-new-imagery-of-mercury-transit">Mercury crossed</a> IN FRONT of the Sun. Though pictures project the event in only two dimensions, a remarkable three dimensional perspective on the transit is possible <a href="http://www.starosta.com/3dshowcase/ihelp.html">by free viewing</a> this stereo pair. <a href="http://www.photomeeting.de/teneriffa2016a/#mt">The images were made</a> 23 minutes apart and rotated so that Mercury's position shifts horizontally between the two. As a result, Mercury's orbital motion produced an exaggerated parallax simulating binocular vision. Between the two exposures, the appropriately named planet's <a href="http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/ 22-How-fast-does-Mercury-orbit-the-Sun-">speedy</a> 47.4 kilometer per second <a href="http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/orbital.htm">orbital velocity</a> actually carried it over 65,000 kilometers. Taken first, the left image is intended for the right eye, so a cross-eyed view is needed to see <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap160512.html">Mercury's tiny silhouette</a> suspended in the foreground. Try it. Merging the text below the images helps.
The Surface of Europa
Image Credit: <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/">NASA</a>, <a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/">JPL-Caltech</a>, <a href="http://www.seti.org">SETI Institute</a>
<a href="http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20028">An enhanced-color view</a>, this image covers a 350 by 750 kilometer swath across the surface of Jupiter's <a href="https://www.nasa.gov/europa">tantalizing moon Europa</a>. The close-up combines high-resolution image data with lower resolution color data from observations made in 1998 by the Galileo spacecraft. Smooth ice plains, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lineae_on_Europa">long fractures</a>, and jumbled blocks of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conamara_Chaos">chaos terrain</a> are thought to hide a deep ocean of salty <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120524.html">liquid water beneath</a>. Though the ice-covered <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap141127.html">alien ocean world</a> is outside the Solar System's habitable zone, <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/ europas-ocean-may-have-an-earthlike-chemical-balance">new studies show the potential chemistry</a> driving its oxygen and hydrogen production, a key indicator of the energy available for life, could produce amounts comparable in scale <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ 2016GL068547/abstract">to planet Earth</a>. Hydrogen would be generated by chemical reactions of the salty water in contact with the rocky ocean floor. Oxygen and other compounds that react with hydrogen would come from Europa's surface. There water ice molecules would be <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.0894">split apart</a> by the intense flux of high-energy radiation from Jupiter and cycled into the Europan ocean from above.
Halo from Atacama
Image Credit & <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/lib/about_apod.html#srapply">Copyright</a>: <a href="https://www.instagram.com/yuribeletsky/">Yuri Beletsky</a> (<a href="http://carnegiescience.edu/">Carnegie</a> <a href="http://www.lco.cl/">Las Campanas Observatory</a>, <a href="http://www.twanight.org/">TWAN</a>)
Influenced by the strong Pacific <a href="http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=87374">El Nino</a>, cloudy skies have more often come to Chile's high Atacama Desert this season, despite its reputation as an astronomer's paradise. Located in one of the driest, darkest places <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110730.html">on planet Earth</a>, domes of the region's twin 6.5 meter <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap151001.html">Magellan telescopes</a> of Carnegie Las Campanas Observatory were closed on May 13. Still, a first quarter Moon and bright stars shine through in this panoramic <a href="https://www.facebook.com/yuribeletskyphoto/">night skyscape</a>, the lunar disk surrounded by a beautiful, bright halo. The angular radius of the <a href="http://www.atoptics.co.uk/halosim.htm">halo is 22 degrees</a>. Not determined by the brightness or phase of the Moon itself, the angle is set by the hexagonal geometry of atmospheric ice crystals that reflect and refract the moonlight. On that night, the brilliant star just inside the halo's radius was really planet Jupiter. The brightest star flanking the halo to the far left is <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canopus">Canopus</a>, with Arcturus on the halo's right.
The Orion Nebula in Visible and Infrared
Image Credit & Copyright: Infrared: <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/">NASA</a>, <a href="http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/mission">Spitzer Space Telescope</a>; Visible: <a href="http://www.astrobin.com/users/OliverCzernetz/">Oliver Czernetz</a>, <a href="http://rsaa.anu.edu.au/observatories/siding-spring-observatory">Siding Spring Obs.</a>
The Great Nebula in Orion is a colorful place. Visible to the unaided eye, it appears as a small <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030207.html">fuzzy patch</a> in the <a href="http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellations/Orion.html">constellation of Orion</a>. Long exposure, <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap140115.html">multi-wavelength images</a> like this, however, show the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/apod/apod_search?tquery=M42">Orion Nebula</a> to be a busy neighborhood of young stars, hot gas, and dark <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030706.html">dust</a>. This <a href="http://www.astrobin.com/247510/">digital composite</a> features not only three colors of <a href="http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/09_visiblelight.html">visible light</a> but four colors of <a href="http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/07_infraredwaves.html">infrared light</a> taken by <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/">NASA</a>'s orbiting <a href="http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/mission/32-Mission-Overview">Spitzer Space Telescope</a> as well. The power behind much of the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ ">Orion Nebula</a> (M42) is the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030302.html">Trapezium</a> - four of the brightest stars in the nebula. Many of the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030225.html">filamentary structures</a> visible are actually <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap031115.html">shock wave</a>s - fronts where fast moving material encounters slow moving gas. The Orion Nebula spans about 40 light years and is <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap020530.html">located</a> about 1500 <a href="http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/cosmic_distance.html">light years</a> away in the same <a href="http://www.astronomycafe.net/qadir/q2233.html">spiral arm</a> of <a href="http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/gal_milky.html">our Galaxy</a> as the <a href="http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/sun">Sun</a>.
Clouds of the Carina Nebula
Image Credit & Copyright: <a href="mailto: j.s.ebersole @at@ gmail .dot. com">John Ebersole</a>
What forms lurk in the mists of the Carina Nebula? The dark ominous figures are actually <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_clouds">molecular clouds</a>, knots of molecular gas and <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030706.html">dust</a> so thick they have become <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap080323.html">opaque</a>. In comparison, however, <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDNiYGuzZPM">these clouds</a> are typically much less dense than <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/science/atmosphere-layers2.html">Earth's atmosphere</a>. Featured here is a detailed image of the core of the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap090524.html">Carina Nebula</a>, a part where both dark and colorful <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap050110.html">clouds</a> of gas and dust are particularly prominent. The image was captured last month from <a href="http://rsaa.anu.edu.au/observatories/siding-spring-observatory">Siding Spring Observatory</a> in <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia">Australia</a>. Although the nebula is predominantly composed of <a href="http://periodic.lanl.gov/1.shtml">hydrogen</a> gas -- here colored green, the image was assigned colors so that light emitted by trace amounts of <a href="http://periodic.lanl.gov/16.shtml">sulfur</a> and <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2eGES-MrIFo">oxygen</a> appear red and blue, respectively. The entire <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carina_Nebula">Carina Nebula</a>, cataloged as NGC 3372, spans over 300 <a href="http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/cosmic_distance.html">light years</a> and lies about 7,500 light-years away in the <a href="http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/startales3.htm">constellation</a> of Carina. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eta_Carinae">Eta Carinae</a>, the most energetic star in the nebula, was one of the brightest stars in the sky in the 1830s, but then <a href="http://www.aavso.org/vsots_etacar">faded dramatically</a>.
Milky Way Over Quiver Tree Forest
Image Credit & Copyright: <a href="http://floriansphotographs.blogspot.com/">Florian Breuer</a>
In front of a famous background of stars and galaxies lies some of Earth's more unusual trees. Known as quiver trees, they are actually <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Succulent_plant">succulent</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe">aloe</a> plants that can grow to tree-like proportions. The <a href="http://www.arkive.org/quiver-tree/aloe-dichotoma/">quiver tree</a> name is derived from the historical usefulness of their hollowed branches as dart holders. Occurring primarily in southern <a href="https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/wfbExt/region_afr.html">Africa</a>, the trees pictured in the <a href="http://floriansphotographs.blogspot.com/2012/12/quiver-trees-by-night-1-2-3.html">above 16-exposure composite</a> are in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quiver_Tree_Forest">Quiver Tree Forest</a> located in southern Namibia. Some of the tallest <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quiver_tree">quiver trees</a> in the park are estimated to be about 300 years old. Behind <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zs2eX1AJPrc">the trees</a> is light from the small town of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keetmanshoop">Keetmanshoop</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namibia">Namibia</a>. Far in the distance, <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120801.html">arching</a> across the background, is the majestic <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110710.html">central band</a> of our <a href="http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/galaxy.html">Milky Way Galaxy</a>. Even further in the distance, visible on the image left, are the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060510.html">Large</a> and <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap050617.html">Small</a> Magellanic Clouds, smaller satellite galaxies of the <a href="http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/features/cosmic/milkyway_info.html">Milky Way</a> that are <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100514.html">prominent</a> in the skies of Earth's southern hemisphere.
Falcon 9 and Milky Way
Image Credit & <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/lib/about_apod.html#srapply">Copyright</a>: <a href="https://500px.com/demeterderek">Derek Demeter</a> (<a href="https://www.seminolestate.edu/planet/">Emil Buehler Planetarium</a>)
On May 6, the after midnight launch of a <a href="http://www.spacex.com/falcon9">SpaceX Falcon 9</a> rocket lit up dark skies over Merritt Island, planet Earth. Its second stage <a href="http://www.universetoday.com/128738/ sspacex-scores-double-whammy-with-nighttime-delivery-of-japanese-comsat-to-orbit-and-2nd-successful-ocean-landing/">bound for Earth orbit</a>, the rocket's arc seems to be on course for the center of the Milky Way in <a href="https://500px.com/photo/152542975/ go-for-launch-by-derek-demeter">this pleasing composite image</a> looking toward the southeast. Two consecutive exposures made with camera fixed to a tripod were combined to follow rocket and <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap151107.html">home galaxy</a>. A 3 minute long exposure at low sensitivity allowed the rocket's first stage burn to trace the bright orange arc and a 30 second exposure at high sensitivity captured the stars and the faint Milky Way. Bright <a href="http://mars.nasa.gov/">orange Mars</a> dominates the starry sky at the upper right. A few minutes later, booster engines were restarted and the Falcon 9's first stage <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHqLz9ni0Bo">headed for a landing</a> on the autonomous spaceport drone ship <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Autonomous_spaceport_drone_ship">Of Course I Still Love You</a>, patiently waiting in the Atlantic 400 miles east of the Cape Canaveral launch site.
ISS and Mercury Too
Image Credit & <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/lib/about_apod.html#srapply">Copyright</a>: <a href="http://www.astrophoto.fr/">Thierry Legault</a>
<a href="http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/transit/catalog/ MercuryCatalog.html">Transits of Mercury</a> are relatively rare. Monday's leisurely 7.5 hour long event was only the 3rd of 14 Mercury transits in the 21st century. If you're willing to travel, <a href="https://www.calsky.com/?ISS">transits of the International Space Station</a> can be more frequent though, and much quicker. <a href="http://www.astrophoto.fr/mercury-transit-2016.html">This sharp video frame composite</a> was taken from a well-chosen location in Philadelphia, USA. It follows the space station, moving from upper right to lower left, as it crossed the Sun's disk in 0.6 seconds. <a href="http://spaceweathergallery.com/index.php?&title=mercury">Mercury too</a> is included as the small, round, almost stationary silhouette just below center. In apparent size, the International Space Station looms larger <a href="https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/ index.html">from low Earth orbit</a>, about 450 kilometers from Philadelphia. Mercury was about 84 million kilometers away. (Editor's note: <a href="http://www.astrophoto.fr/mercury-transit-2016.html">The stunning video</a> includes another double transit, Mercury and a Pilatus PC12 aircraft. Even quicker than the ISS to cross the Sun, the aircraft was about 1 kilometer away.)
A Transit of Mercury
Image Credit & <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/lib/about_apod.html#srapply">Copyright</a>: <a href="mailto: howard [dot] bg [at] live [dot] co [dot] uk">Howard Brown-Greaves</a>
<a href="http://sdoisgo.blogspot.com/2016/05/ a-few-stories-about-transit-of-mercury.html">On May 9</a>, the diminutive disk of Mercury spent about seven and a half hours crossing in front of the Sun as viewed from the general <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap160511.html">vicinity of Earth</a>. It was the third of 14 transits of the Solar System's innermost planet in the <a href="http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/transit/catalog/ MercuryCatalog.html">21st century</a>. Captured from Fulham, London, England, planet Earth the tiny <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap160507.html">silhouette shares</a> the enormous solar disk with prominences, filaments, and active regions in this sharp image. But Mercury's round disk (left of center) appears to be the only dark spot, despite the <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap141024.html">planet-sized sunspots</a> scattered across the Sun. Made with an H-alpha filter that narrowly transmits the red light from hydrogen atoms, the image emphasizes <a href="http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/chromos.shtml">the chromosphere</a>, stretching above the photosphere or normally visible solar surface. In H-alpha pictures of the chromosphere, normally dark sunspot regions are dominated by bright splotches <a href="http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/sun/prominences.html">called plages</a>.
A Mercury Transit Music Video from SDO
Video Credit: <a href="http://www.nasa.gov">NASA</a>'s <a href="https://www.nasa.gov/goddard">Goddard Space Flight Center</a>, <a href="http://gennaduberstein.com/about/">Genna Duberstein</a>; Music: <a href="https://soundcloud.com/mark-22/encompass">Encompass</a> by <a href="https://soundcloud.com/mark-22">Mark Petrie</a>
What's that small black dot moving across the Sun? <a href="http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/mercury">Mercury</a>. Possibly the clearest view of <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120605.html">Mercury crossing</a> in front of the Sun earlier this week was from Earth orbit. The <a href="http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/mission/about.php">Solar Dynamics Observatory</a> obtained an uninterrupted vista <a href="http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12235">recording it</a> not only in optical light but also in bands of ultraviolet light. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8J4LoX3eOWc">Featured here</a> is a composite movie of the crossing set to music. Although the event might prove <a href="http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2016/2016-transit-mercury/">successful scientifically</a> for better determining components of Mercury' ultra-thin atmosphere, the event surely proved <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ http://astronomerswithoutborders.org/gam2016-programs/observing/3163-transit-of-mercury.html">successful culturally</a> by involving <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100725.html">people throughout the world</a> in observing a rare astronomical phenomenon. <a href="http://spaceweathergallery.com/index.php?title=mercury">Many spectacular images</a> of this <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transit_of_Mercury">Mercury transit</a> from around (and above) the globe are being <a href="http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=35887&start=36">proudly</a> <a href="http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ https://www.google.com/search?q=Mercury+Transit+201&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1254&bih=721&source=lnt&tbs=cdr%3A1%2Ccd_min%3A5%2F9%2F2016%2Ccd_max%3A5%2F10%2F2016&tbm=isch">displayed</a>.


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apod-scraper / scraper.py